Kernel Compilation

Should have put this looooooooong before, but better late then never, so this one’s for all you BE people

Don’t mind the wordings, this is just a dump of my notes and outputs.

Step 1: Get kernel stable source code from will get an archive  name something like linux-x.y.z.tar.bz2. here x indicates version no, y indicates whether kernel is stable or not and  z indicates kernel release number.if y is even then kernel is stable  otherwise unstable.we can download using command


Step 2: untar a kernel archive in /usr/src(not necessarily) using

#tar -xjvf linux-2.6.25.tar.bz2 -C /usr/src then go to directory where u have untarred the file cd /usr/src

Step 3: Check whether you have gcc or not: You can check it by following shell command which gcc if gcc is not installed,u can get it using command sudo apt-get install gcc

Step 4: Now you can start kernel configuring by typing any one of the command:

make menuconfig – Text based color menus,  radiolists & dialogs.  This option also useful on remote server if you wanna compile kernel  remotely.

make xconfig – X windows (Qt) based configuration tool,  works best under KDE desktop make gconfig – X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool,  works best under Gnome Dekstop.

For example make menuconfig command launches following screen:make menuconfig

You have to select different options as per your need.  Each configuration option has HELP button associated with it  so select help button to get help. finally select save an alternate configuration as .config file and exit.

Step 5: ~Modules Start compiling to create a compressed kernel image,

enter: make

Start compiling to kernel modules: make modules

Install kernel modules: make modules_install

Step 6 : ~Install kernel So far we have compiled kernel and installed kernel modules.  It is time to install kernel itself. make install

Step 7: Create an initrd image After this you will have to create initrd image of kernel. This can be done as follows : first goto /boot directory cd /boot create initrd image:

mkinitrd -o initrd.img-

Many linux distros does not support this naturally,like Debian Wheezy does not suppport mkinitrd tools and so we have to use initramfs tools.

You can simply type following commands for this case: update-initramfs -k -c and then update grub update-grub

Step 8:

This step includes actually modifying grub. This can be done by actually modifying  file grub.conf or using command update-grub

Step 9: reboot

Reboot from your new kernel.U can find out ur kernel version using: uname -a #Mine gave this sward@sward:~/module/hello_dev

$ uname -a Linux sward #5 SMP Thu Apr 14 00:19:30 IST 2011 i686 GNU/Linux


Workshops Follow-up

Today I met a professor from SKN, where I had presented and held workshops three time till now. She reminded me for more.

It also brings me back to posting here, reports of 2 workshops I had taken back in Impetus and Concepts,well basically~4

These were~
1. Blender ~ Chamba Chapter
This was a two day workshop on Blender, with a Film -Fest and an introduction to the Chamba Open Source Movie Project. It was fun! I started off as usual, and made the (trademarked, :-P) table modelling and other blender stuff.
There was good interaction with the crowd, it was a good experience to have people from college that were out of city, and mingle with them over the two days..Labeeb had joined me for the same.

2. Introduction to Indic Computing and Silpa Project “”

Here I and Praveen just dropped in at the end, my friends Nikhil, Prajakta, Smriti had learned localization over weeks, and were guided by Santosh T(who’s a member of the Wikimedia Languauges Committee)
There were some question regarding JSON and Silpa in general which we tried to answer

3. InstallFest-
Well cant call this a workshop, but had set a days stall with good support from my juniors which hosted Chamba as a stall, and GNU/Linux InstallFest, we had laid cool stickers, and other stuff to roll out for free..

This was my one day attempt to teach the crowd, setting up the environment for Android(2.3/3.0).,moving around with the Architecture and the basics of Development.
I started off with a presentation, gave an overview of Android, moved across its environment, the command line, managing dvm, dvm debugger, and browsed through the various data over the Android image from command line.
Then I introduced image management.

I then moved to Resources and other contents of an Android project. Introduced with main.xml and actual coding of Activity.

I started coding a simple hello world application and then a converter(First steps first)

All in all, I tried completing:
1. Activity
2. Services
3. Intents
4. SQLite Database Access
5. Showed creating Alarms

To round up I showed the creation of a NotePad and a Twitter App in Android.

It was a good experience to teach such a technology for the first time(which was not just Linux i mean!)

–More to come~other workshop and seminar experiences–


Yesterday, we(Shyam Sir, Anand-his brother an me), completed the setup of a test cloud in PICT.

We setup a cloud with procedure from below”

It was a havoc for many days, Shyam Sir had started the setup many days before. Its easy to setup the cloud, if its on an internal network. We had many collisions as we wanted to use two NIC’s one for Public IP and another a private one that created a bridge to the internal nodes.

We setup Eucalyptus EC,which provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), which consists of the following main components

1. Cloud Controller (Your main interface for the external world)
2. Cluster Controller (CLC-Controls the internal cluster/s)
3. Walrus (Controls volumes and storage)
4. SC (Storage Controller)

Every node within the network should have a Node Controller(NC)

Important things to remember:
1.Make sure you have assigned proper IP’s for internal and external network
2. Make sure there is password less login from CC to NC
3. ssh is a hell,it wasted our days, make sure ssh ports are properly configured, this is bound to happen due to use of 2 NIC’s
4. Make sure you have set ListenAddress property,to mask and use the desired interface for ssh,(/etc/ssh/ssh_config)
5. See that all internal interfaces act as a bridge, along with ip-forwarding enabled.

*For detailed error,check the cc.log in /var/log/eucalyptus

*Only after proper registration of nodes, do we find a nc.log on the node machine, this is an indication of relief(its almost done), as your CC and NC are communicating.

—More to come about images installation and management—

Mujhe mere Pita lauta do..

When my friend from Vidarbh opens his newspaper everyday, and finds that there aren’t any farmers dead the day before, he chucks with the person next to him -“Konich Atma-hatya keli nahi rav kaal..”[“Friend, No one commited suicide yesterday.”]

What has become a daily incident in the Vidarbh, isn’t just limited over there. Maharashtra, Punjab, Karnataka, etc, all of which were considered as Pioneers in Green-Revolution in 1970’s.

“Green Revolution” was neither Green , nor a Revolution.
It was the total devastation of our Agricultural Sector at large.

In late 70’s there was a heavy deficit of food, and people were dying of starvation in India. At around the same time Lal Bahudur Shastri was the Prime Minister of India. India heeded for help from America , with respect to the shortage in grains. India just wanted a moderate help, to overcome the deficit, but America was adamant to help, laying the condition to restructure the Agricultural Sector in India in-front of the then PM. Soon in 1966 , he passed way, with Indira Gandhi taking up as the Prime Minister.

Indira Gandhi succumbed to the need and India agreed to open up the Agricultural sector.

Accordingly heavy structural changes were made, with introduction of Public Distribution System, High Yielding Varieties, Intensive Farming, and heavy use of Fertilizers.

Ironically the Fertilizers were from those Companies that produced Chemical Weapons for the World War, and had soon lost Market thereafter.

With the inception of Fertilizers, HYV[seeds] a so-called Revolution spanned across all regions of India. Most traditional farmers switched to use of Chemicals in Farming.

But the inevitable soon followed. You can’t expect glories from a Land that has been under constant sedation of chemicals. The Ground Water is polluted, the atmosphere changes, pollens are affected, and the cycle continues.

Soon the yield of farmers began to drop. The so-called High Yielding Varieties didn’t Yield at all!!!

Blender Workshop[Episode 1]

In accordance with the Chamba Open Movie Initiative, we’ve been reaching to colleges to gain support, and promote people to work on Blender, for attracting more Artists to Chamba. One such attempt was by taking a workshop in Sri KashiBai Navale[SKN], College of Engineering, Sinhagad Campus, Pune.

A few Moments from this Workshop can be found over here..
Facebook Link

I preceded over taking the two-day workshop to give an insight in the Basics of 3-D Modelling, Texturing, Animation and Blender Game Engine.

About 60 students participated in the two-day event over 22-23 January,2011. What began as a mild introduction soon lead to a session with overwhelming response. I was happy to see the last of the student trying to notch out every piece of solution for whatever mistakes they made over the two days.

I was astonished to find that even in the last session of the two days, 97% of the crowd was still present!!![I have a huge experience with Workshops, and this is a bit strange.]

I was able to complete basics of 3-D modelling,Sculpting,Editing on the First Day, with them taking time to be familiarized with the Blender Environment.

Later in the Evening of the first day, Praveen and Labeeb dropped in to show the Open Movies[under the Open Movie Fest]. With Sintel, Big Buck Bunny and likes, the crowd seemed to be relieved from the day long Workshop.

On the next day I started off with screening of “Sita Sings the Blues” and completed it half. Then I began with Basics of Animation and Camera movements.

Post Lunch Shravan and Praveen dropped in whence I had started off with Basics of Blender Game Engine.

Later I handed over the movie sessions to the both and left for Lokayat.

All in it was a superbly managed event. I thank Sonal, a lot for taking in the initiative and helping me out,Praveen,Labeeb and Shravan from Chamba, and the team of people with Sonal. I also thank the Staff of SKN , along with the authorities for granting me to hold such an event.

For more information over Chamba:

Chamba Project Main Page

The Re-Tale

This Wikipedia page lists the following as the so called “hurdles” of Indian Retailing infrastructure.

Challenges in Retailing

In 2008, the supermarkets and organised retail chains accounted for 4 percent of the total Retail share of India, before the inception of Wal-Mart the leader in Retail market leader in the World with 8,500 stores in 15 countries, with 55 different names and about 500+ billion company.

Slowly and steadily the un-organised sector is losing its grip. The growth rate of organised retailing was 35% last year, and that of its counter-part being a meager 6%.

Dried up Local Markets

With the rise in Tier-II and Tier-III cities in India, a steady rise has been reflected in the growth and establishment of markets. The average Indian consumer now prefers the Marts due to the accessibility and heavy discounts levied. A relief for the commoner in an economy with rising prices. The steady draft from un-organised to organised retailing is making a disastrous change at best.

Like any huge corporation, Chain-Retailers are plundering the might of small business holdings and establishment. A report on Wal-mart’s threat to economy beautifully pictures this dillema. Anit-trust lawsuits are on the rise, and in the open. In such a view, Bharati group has turned into an alliance with it in BestPrice Modern Wholesale.

“Every Indian desires for a Bike even if he can’t afford the fuel”

In this context ,I am left to think, why don’t we ever learn from other’s mistake? With such a dreaded history, the Wal-Mart’s fame will now be following by Reliance Fresh,D-Mart’s,Big-Bazaar’s etc. They suck up the local business by selling goods at a substantially low price, and then increase the prices after the lot is the only one to monopolize.

Everyday news, states the rise in groceries as it is, due to the criminal economic system of our country. Today’s news stated a rise of 58% of prices in groceries in Maharashtra. This was somehow sustained by people due to the current available competition, from local retailers. When the monopoly rises, people will have no chance but comply to the heavy prices of the marts. The inception of Wal-Mart wasn’t welcomed by protests but excitement by the common Indian. We are blind-folded by the Awe, these Establishments promise. Later even before we try to understand what lies behind the picture we are left helpless. Although the current Retail laws limit the involvement of Foreign settlements in this Retail Economy, it wont be long in this country with major US influence to avert this, this was a clear picture painted by Obama’s last India visit.

So now the question arises, do we want low prices for a small time, and then high prices forever, or the current ways that go on? Well there may be arguments that the current system isn’t fine as well, but that’s nothing compared to its counter-part.

Even as we see for ourselves[Consumers], the thought should prevail about the crores that will be losing their Jobs and Life [Independent Retailers]. The aftermath can be as that seen in countries where Wal-Mart exists[US,Brazil,etc]. The effects are far reaching that affect the whole the economy at large.

So what should be done? Spread the word. Let everyone understand such and many more things in our life…

Join together to fight against such Corporations that threat our existence…


Continued from this Article

So the idea decided was that we portray a Circus and in group of twos depict various characters. The roles were chosen below..

  • Bal- A Lion
  • Medha-Calisthenics Performer
  • Abhijit-Joker
  • Shaku-Calisthenics
  • Prashant-Ring Master and Circus Manager
  • Me-Joker

The outlines of our and other stories are as below-

Group 1.
Name-“Sundar Prabhat”-A beautiful Morning

This group showcased a two parts play, two people enter in[Hrishikesh and Puneet] turn on the Television..

[In T.V.]

Program turns on KBC[Who wants to be a millionaire?], the host Amitabh[Jeetu] calls in the guest Salman Khan[Tushar]. Special celebrity support are called..Manmohan Singh[Neeraj] and Sonia Gandhi[Mangal], the question begins..

Which beauty cream does Katrina Kaif[relative to Salman] use?

And a fun dellima continues..

The next scene is a changed show portraying Chitrahaar..
all people dance to a beautiful Morning Song..

-This Showcases the present Media use to portray beauty relative to external features.. Beauty products and its mass propagation.
-It also feature how the same media also can portray beauty of Nature’s Beauty, and wonderful thoughts if used so..

Group 2.

Name-Evolution of Beauty

A wonderful rhythmic attempt to portray real beauty

All players lay on the stage asleep, morning streak breaks silence, all animals awake one after another. There’s a pig, crow, donkey,tadpole, all supposedly ugly animals. They begin by small sounds leading a full fledged noises.. A brilliant music arises in the rhythmic croaking, squeaking, squealing, bleating. The character swirl around and change to common day workers, a woman preparing food, a person using his Axe, village workers, farmers, yet the uneven actions depict a beautiful music once again, portraying beauty existent in smallest and even the so called ugliest things..
End note with the song from Rock On!!
“Socha Hai..

-A brilliant approach to display beauty exists in each and every creation
-The neglegance of people to this aspect of beauty
-Should be improvised into a full fledged play..

Group 3.

Name- Satyam Shivam Sundaram

A three part play questioning aspects of beauty or its existence itself.
A mountain enters[Anuj] a questions publicly – “Am I beatutiful?”, goes ahead and asks one or two individually.

Moves into Backdrop. People enter around the mountain. An Artist simmers the mountains beauty in a painting, another person appears proposing to a girl , a trekker enjoys hiking about the mountain, a photographer captures mountain Pics.

A representation of different points of view in beauty of a mountain.

Next Part depicts two characters and thier children emerging from them-

Sabhyata[Civilization] -Essence of competition
Sanskriti[Culture] -Love[Prem],etc..

An attempt to abstractly touch various aspects of beauty, questioning its existence ,its inhibitant nature.

Group 4.

Name- Drishtikon [Perspective]

This was our groups presentation, It started of with us all entering and dancing to the tune of “Jeena Yahaan” from “Meera Naam Joker”.